Denis Mareschal

Director CBCD

Professor of Psychology

Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development
School of Psychology, Birkbeck College
Mail: Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX
Office: Henry Wellcome Building, Rm. 103
Phone: +44 (0)20 3926 1079
Fax: +44 (0)20 7631 6587
Email: d dot mareschal at bbk dot ac dot uk

To visit my School of Psychology webpage, please click here.


Research interests

I am interested in all aspects of perceptual and cognitive development in infancy and childhood.The real challenge for developmental psychology is to explain HOW one level of competence is transformed into the next level of competence. A mechanistic account of development is required to answer this question. Computer modelling provides a tool for exploring how different candidate mechanisms can account for the developmental profiles observed in infants and children. Connectionist networks are particularly well suited for modelling development because they develop their own internal representations in response to environmental pressures. Moreover, they provide a bridge between the neuroscience descriptions of development and the traditional (behavioural) descriptions of cognitive development.

My research involves a blend of (connectionist) computational modelling and empirical studies with infants and children. Research projects with children have included: the development of seriation abilities, the development of metaphor comprehension, and the developing basis for inductive reasoning. Research projects with infants have included: the search for occluded and visible objects, the perception of object unity, categorisation of visually presented stimuli, and the determinants of visual pursuit.

The common theme that underlies these projects is the exploration of how the computational properties of a learning systems (e. g., a connectionist autoencoder network or a 3-month-old infant) interact with the distribution of meaningful features in the environment to cause the observed patterns of development in children and infants.




Thomas, M. S. C., Mareschal, D. & Knowland, V. (2021) Taking Development Seriously A Festschrift for Annette Karmiloff-Smith: Neuroconstructivism and the multi-disciplinary approach to understanding the emergence of mind. New York, NY: Routledge.

Thomas, M. S. C., Mareschal, D. & Dumontheil, I. (2020) Educational Neuroscience: Development across the life span. New York, NY: Routledge.

Mareschal, D., Butterworth, B. & Tolmie, A. (2013). Educational NeuroscienceOxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell.

Mareschal, D., Quinn, P. C. & Lea, S. E. G. (2010). The making of human concepts. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Mareschal, D., Johnson, M.H., Sirois, S., Spratling, M., Thomas, M. & Westermann, G. (2007). Neuroconstructivism, Vol. I: How the brain constructs cognition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Mareschal, D., Sirois, S., Westermann, G. & Johnson, M. H. (2007). Neuroconstructivism, Vol. II: Perspectives and Prospects. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.


Journal Articles:

Serino, G., Mareschal, D., Scerif, G. & Kirkham, N. Z. (2024) Playing Hide and Seek: Contextual Regularity Learning develops between 3 and 5 Years of Age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 238, 105795.

Dumontheil*, I., Wilkinson*, H. R., Farran, E. K., Smid, C., Modhvadia, R., Mareschal, D. & the UnLocke team (2023) How do executive functions influence children’s reasoning about counterintuitive concepts in mathematics and science? Journal of Cognitive Enhancement.

Schroer, I., Cooper, R. P. & Mareschal, D. (2023) Assessing executive functions in free roaming 2-to 3-year-olds. Frontiers in Psychology, 14,1210109. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1210109

Massonnié, J., Frasseto, P., Ng-Knight, T., Gilligan-Lee,, K., Kirkham, N. Z. & Mareschal, D. (2022) Children’s effortful control skills, but not their prosocial skills, relate to their reactions to classroom noise. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19, 8815.

Schroer, I., Cooper, R. P. & Mareschal, D. (2022) Left, right, left, right: 24-to-36-months-olds’ planning and execution of simple alternating actions. Infancy, 27, 1104-1115.

Brzozowska, A., Longo, M., Mareschal, D., Wiesmann, F. & Gliga, T. (2022) Oxcytocin but not naturally occurring variation in caregiver touch associates with infant social orienting. Developmental Psycholobiology, 64, e22290.

Massonnié, J., Mareschal, D. & Kirkham, N.Z. (2022) Individual differences in dealing with classroom noise disturbances. Mind, Brain and Education.

Dumontheil, I., Brookman-Byrne, A., Tolmie, A. K. & Mareschal, D. (2022) The neural and cognitive underpinnings of counterintuitive science and maths reasoning in adolescence. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 34, 1205-1229.

Gauthier, A., Porayska-Pomsta, K., Mayer, S., Dumonteil, I., Farran, E., Bell, D., Mareschal, D. & the UnLocke Team (2022) Redesigning learning games for different learning contexts: applying a serious game design framework to redesign Stop & Think. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 33, 100503.

Blakeman, S. & Mareschal, D. (2022) Selective Particle Attention: Rapidly and flexibly selecting features for deep reinforcement learning. Neural Networks, 150, 408-421.

Gauthier, A., Porayska-Pomsta, K., Dumontheil, I., Mayer, S. & Mareschal, D. (2022) Manipulating interface design features affects children’s stopping-and-thinking behaviors in a counterintuitive-problem game. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 29, article 2.

Rocha, S., Southgate, V. & Mareschal, D. (2021) Rate of infant carrying impacts infant spontaneous motor tempo. Royal Society Open Science, 8, 210608.

Csink, V., Gliga, T. & Mareschal, D. (2021) Remembering nothing: Encoding and memory processes involved in representing empty locations. Memory & Cognition,50, 129-143. doi:10.3758/s13421-021-01205-x

Bell, D., Mareschal, D.  & The UnLocke Team (2021) UnLocke-ing learning in maths and science: the role of cognitive inhibition in developing counter-intuitive concepts. Journal of Emergent Science, 20, 19-26.

Brzozowska, A., Longo, M. L., Mareschal, D., Weisemann, F. & Gliga, T. (2021) Capturing touch in parent-infant interaction: a comparison of methods. Infancy, 26, 494-514.

Csink, V., Mareschal, D. & Gliga, T. (2021) Does surprise enhance infant memory? Assessing the impact of the encoding context on subsequent object recognition. Infancy, 26, 303-318. DOI: 10.1111/infa.12383

Schroer, I., Cooper, R. P. & Mareschal, D. (2021) Science with Duplo: Multilevel goal management in preschoolers’ toy house constructions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 206, 105067.

Rocha, S., Southgate, V. & Mareschal, D. (2020) Infant Spontaneous Motor Tempo. Developmental Science, e13032.

Massonnié, J., Frasseto, P., Mareschal, D., & Kirkham, N. Z. (2020) Learning in noisy classrooms: Children’s reports of annoyance and distraction from noise are associated with individual differences in mind-wandering and switching skills. Environment & Behavior, DOI: 10.1177/0013916520950277.

Massonnié, J., Frasseto, P., Mareschal, D., & Kirkham, N. Z. (2020) Scientific collaboration with educators: Practical insights from an in-class noise reduction intervention. Mind, Brain and Education.

D’Souza, H., Lathan, A., Karmiloff-Smith, A. & Mareschal, D. (2020) Down syndrome and parental depression: A double hit on early expressive language development. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 100, 103613.

Startin, C.M., D’Souza, H., Ball, G. et al. (2020) Health comorbidities and cognitive abilities across the lifespan in Down syndrome. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disordorders 12, 4.

Broadbent, H., Osborne, T., Mareschal, D. & Kirkham, N. Z. (2020) Are two cues always better than one? The role of multiple intrasensory cues compared to multi-cross-sensory cues in children's incidental category learning. Cognition, 199, 104202.

Blakeman, S. & Mareschal, D. (2020) A complementary learning systems approach to temporal difference learning. Neural Networks, 122, 218-230.

Kirkham, N. Z.,  Rea, M., Osborne, T., White, H. & Mareschal, D. (2019) Do cues from multiple modalities support quicker learning in primary school children? Developmental Psychology, 55, 2048-2059.

Broadbent, H. J., Osborne, T., Kirkham, N. Z. & Mareschal, D. (2019) Touch and look: The role of visual-haptic cues for categorical learning in children. Infant and Child Development, e2168.

Wilkinson, H. R. , Smid, C., Morris, S., Farran, E. K., Dumontheil, I., Mayer, S., Tolmie, A., Bell, D., Porayska-Pomsta, K., Holmes, W., Mareschal, D., Thomas, M. S. C. & the UnLocke Team (2019) Domain-specific inhibitory control training to improve children’s learning of counterintuitive concepts in mathematics and science. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement.

Brookman-Byrne, A., Mareschal, D., Tolmie, A. K. & Dumontheil, I. (2019) The unique contributions of verbal analogical reasoning and non-verbal matrix reasoning to science and maths problem-solving in adolescence. Mind, Brain and Education, 13, 211-223.

Massonnié, J., Rogers, C. J., Mareschal, D. & Kirkham N. Z. (2019) Is classroom noise always bad for children? The contribution of age and selective attention to creative performance in noise. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 381.

Broadbent, H.J., Osborne, T., Mareschal, D. & Kirkham N. Z. (2019) Withstanding the test of time: Multisensory cues improve the delayed retention of incidental learning. Developmental Science, 22: e12726.

Forrester, G. S., Davis, R., Mareschal, D., Malatesta, G., & Todd B. K. (2019) The left cradling bias: an evolutionary facilitator of social cognition? Cortex, 118, 116-131.

Peng, A., Kirkham, N. Z., & Mareschal, D. (2018) Information processes of task-switching and modality-switching across development. PLoS ONE, 13(6): e0198973.

Brookman-Byrne, A., Mareschal, D., Tolmie, A. K., & Dumontheil, I. (2018) Inhibitory control and counterintuitive science and maths reasoning in adolescence. PLoS ONE, 13(6): e0198973.

Peng, A., Kirkham, N. Z., & Mareschal, D. (2018) Task switching costs in preschool children and adults. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 172, 59-72.

Broadbent, H.J., Osborne, T., Rea, M., Peng, A., Mareschal, D., & Kirkham, N.Z. (2018) Incidental category learning and cognitive load in a multisensory environment across childhood. Developmental Psychology, 54, 1020-1028.

Thomas, R. L., Nardini, M. & Mareschal, D. (2017) The impact of semantically congruent and incongruent visual information on auditory object recognition across development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 162, 72-88.

Broadbent, H. J. , White, H., Mareschal, D., & Kirkham, N. Z. (2017) Incidental learning in a multisensory environment across childhood. Developmental Science. doi:10.1111/desc.12554

Rocha, S. & Mareschal, D. (2016) Getting into the groove: the development of tempo-flexibility between 10 and 18 months of age. Infancy, 22, 540-551. doi: 10.1111/infa.12169

Addyman, C., Rocha, S., Fautrelle, L., French, R. M., Thomas, E., Mareschal, D. (2016) Embodiment and the origin of interval timing: kinematic and electromyographic data. Experimental Brain Research. doi:10.1007/s00221-016-4842-y

Mareschal, D. & French, R. M. (2016) TRACX2: A connectionist autoencoder using graded chunks  to model infant visual statistical learning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 372, p. 20160057

Mareschal, D. (2016) The neuroscience of conceptual learning in science and mathematics. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 10, 14-18.

Mareschal, I., Otsuka, Y., Clifford, C. W. G., & Mareschal, D. (2016) Are you looking at me? How children’s gaze judgments improve with age. Developmental Psychology, 52, 695-703. DOI:10.1037/dev0000100

Allman, M. J. & Mareschal, D. (2016) Possible evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of mental time travel (and implications for autism). Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 8, 220-225.

Leung,  S., Mareschal, D.,  Rowsell, R., Simpson, D., Iaria, L.,  Grbic,  A., & Kaufman, J. (2016) Oscillatory activity in the infant brain and the representation of small numbers. Frontiers in Systems NeuroscienceDOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2016.00004

Freier, L., Cooper, R. P. & Mareschal, D. (2015) Preschool Children’s Control of Action Outcomes. Developmental Science. DOI:10.1111/desc.12354

Nardini, M, Bales, J & Mareschal, D (2015). Integration of audio-visual information for spatial decisions in children and adults. Developmental Science. DOI: 10.1111/desc.12327

Bedford, R., Pellicano, E., Mareschal, D. & Nardini, M. (2015) Flexible integration of visual cues in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research. 06/2015; DOI: 10.1002/aur.1509

Freier, L., Cooper, R. P. & Mareschal, D. (2015) The planning and execution of natural sequential actions in the preschool years. Cognition, 144, 58-66.

Fautrellle, L., Mareschal, D., French, R. M., Addyman, C. & Thomas, E. (2015) Motor activity improves temporal accuracy. PloS ONE, 10(3): e0119187.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119187

French, R.M., Addyman, C., Mareschal, D. & Thomas, E. (2014) GAMIT: A Fading-Gaussian Activation Model of Interval-Time  — Unifying prospective and retrospective time estimation Timing & Time Perception Reviews, 1.

Dekker, T. M., Mareschal, D. , Johnson, M. H., & Sereno, M. I. (2014) Picturing words? Sensorimotor cortex activation for printed words in child and adult readers. Brain and Language, 139, 58-67.

Tummeltshammer, K. S., Mareschal, D., & Kirkham, N. Z. (2014) Infants’ selective attention to reliable visual cues in the presence of salient distracters. Child Development, 85, 1981-1994.

Althaus, N. & Mareschal, D. (2014) Labels Direct Infants' Attention to Commonalities During Novel Category Learning, PLoS ONE, 9, e99670. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099670.

Addyman, C., Rocha, S. & Mareschal, D. (2014)  Mapping the Origins of time: Scalar errors in infant time estimation. Developmental Psychology, 50,2030-2035.

Forrester, G. S., Pegler, R., Thomas, M. S.C. & Mareschal, D. (2014) Handedness as a marker of cerebral lateralization in children with and without Autism. Behavioural Brain Research, 268, 14-21.

Althaus, N. & Mareschal, D. (2013) Modeling cross-modal interactions in early word learning. IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, 5,288-297.

Westermann, G. & Mareschal, D. (2013) From perceptual to language-mediated categorization. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 369: 201220391

Dekker, T. M. & Mareschal, D. (2013) Object processing for action across childhood. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 31, 425-435.

Cooper, R. P., Ruh, N., & Mareschal, D. (2013). The Goal Circuit Model: A hierarchical multi-route model of the acquisition and control of routine sequential action in humans. Cognitive Science. DOI: 10.1111/cogs.12067

Addyman, C. & Mareschal, D. (2013) Local redundancy governs infants’ spontaneous orienting to visual-temporal sequences . Child Development, 84, 1137-1144.

Nardini, M.,  Begus, K., & Mareschal, D. (2013). Multisensory uncertainty reduction for hand localization in children and adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39, 773-787.

Thomas, M. S. C., Purser, H. R. M. & Mareschal, D. (2013) Is the mystery of thought demystified by context-dependent categorisation? Towards a new relation between language and thought. Mind and Language, 27, 595-618.

Westermann, G. & Mareschal, D. (2013) Mechanisms of developmental change in infant categorization. Cognitive Development, 27, 367-392.

Forrester, G. S., Quaresmini, C.,  Leavens, D. A.,  Mareschal, D. &Thomas, M. S.C. (2013) Human handedness: an inherited evolutionary trait. Behavioural Brain Research, 237, 200-206.

Purser, H., Thomas, M.S.C., Tomlinson, S. & Mareschal, D. (2012) Are imaging and lesioning convergent methods for assessing functional specialisation? Investigations using an artificial neural network. Brain and Cognition 78, 38-49

Althaus, N. & Mareschal, D. (2012) Using saliency maps to separate competing processes in infant visual cognition. Child Development, 83, 1122-1128.

French, R. M., Addyman, C. & Mareschal, D. (2011) TRACX: A recognition-based connectionist framework for sequence segmentation and chunk extraction. Psychological Review, 118, 614-636.

Dekker, T., Mareschal, D. Sereno, M. I. & Johnson, M. H. (2011) Dorsal and Ventral Stream Activation Patterns and Object Recognition Performance in School-Age Children. Neuroimage, 57, 659-670.

Purser, H. R. M., Thomas, M. S. C., Snoxall, S., Mareschal, D., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2011). Definitions versus categorisation: Assessing the development of lexico-semantic knowledge in Williams syndrome. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 46, 361-373.

Wu, R., Mareschal, D. & Rakison, D. (2010) Attention to multiple cues during spontaneous labelling. Infancy,16, 545-556.

Nardini, M., Bedford, R., &  Mareschal, D. (2010). Fusion of visual cues is not mandatory in children. Proceedings of the  National Academy of  Science U. S. A. 107(39), 17041-17046

Thomas, R., Nardini, M. & Mareschal, D. (2010). Interactions between "light-from-above" and convexity priors in visual development. Journal of Vision, 10(8):6, 1-7

Addyman, C. & Mareschal, D. (2010) The perceptual origins of the abstract Same/Different concept in human infants Animal Cognition, 13, 817-833.

Thomas, M. S. C., Van Duuren, M., Purser, H., Mareschal, D., Ansari, D & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2010). The development of metaphorical language comprehension in typical development and in Williams syndrome. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106, 99-114.

Mareschal, D. (2010) Computational perspectives on cognitive development. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews, 1, 696-708.

Ruh, N., Cooper, R. P., & Mareschal, D. (2010). Action selection in complex routinized sequential behaviors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 106, 99-114.

Purser, H., Thomas, M. S. C., & Snoxall, S. & Mareschal, D. (2009) The development of similarity: Testing the prediction of a computational model of metaphor comprehension. Language and Cognitive Processes, 24, 1406-1430.

Grossmann, T., Gliga, T., Johnson, M.H. & Mareschal, D. (2009) The neural basis of perceptual category learning in human infants. The Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 21: 2276-2286. (PDF)

Mareschal, D. & Tan S. H. (2008) The Role of Context in the Categorization of Hybrid Toy Stimuli by Eighteen-Month-Olds.  Infancy 13: 620-639.

Gliga, T., Mareschal, D. & Johnson, M.H. (2008). Ten-months-olds' selective use of visual dimensions in category learning.  Infant Behaviour and Development 31, 287-293. (PDF)

Leech, R., Mareschal, D. & Cooper, R. (2008) Analogy as relational priming: A developmental and computational perspective on the origins of a complex cognitive skill. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31, 357-414. (PDF)

Sirois, S., Spratling, M.W., Thomas, M.S.C. and Westermann, G., Mareschal, D., and Johnson, M.H. (2008) Precis of Neuroconstructivism: How the Brain Constructs Cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31, 321-356. (PDF)

Thomas, M.S.C. and Westermann, G., Mareschal, D., Johnson, M.H., Sirois, S., and Spratling, M.W. (2008) Developmental Science in the 21st century. Behavioral  and Brain Sciences, 31, 345-356.

Bremner, A.J., Mareschal, D., Fox, S. & Spence, C. (2008). Spatial localization of touch in the first year of life: Early influence of a visual code and the development of remapping across changes in limb position. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 137, 149-162. (PDF)

Gliga, T. & Mareschal, D. (2007) What can neuroimaging tell us about the early development of visual categories. Cogniþie, Creier, Comportament [Cognition, Brain, Behavior], 10, 757-772. (PDF)

Leech, R., Mareschal, D. & Cooper, R. (2007). Relations as transformations: Implications for analogical reasoning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 60, 897-908(PDF)

Bremner, A.J., Bryant, P.E., Mareschal, D. & Volein, A. (2007). Complex object representation in early infancy. Visual Cognition 1-31 (PDF)

Kotsoni, E., Csibra, G., Mareschal, D. & Johnson, M.H. (2007). Electrophysiological evidence of re-entrant processing in common onset visual masking. Neuropsychologia 45, 2285-2293. (PDF)

Westermann, G., Mareschal, D., Johnson, M.H., Sirois, S., Spratling, M.W. & Thomas, M.S.C. (2007). Neuroconstructivism. Developmental Science 10, 75-83. (PDF)

Bremner, A.J., Mareschal, D., Destrebecqz, A. & Cleermans, A. (2007). Cognitive control of sequential knowledge at 2 years of age: Evidence from an incidental sequence learning and generation task. Psychological Science 18, 261-266. (PDF)

Mareschal, D. & Tan, S.H. (2007). Flexible and context-dependent categorisation by eighteen-month-olds. Child Development 78, 19-37. (PDF)

Mareschal, D. & Thomas, M.S.C. (2007). Computational modeling in developmental psychology. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation (Special Issue on Autonomous Mental Development) 11, 137-150. (PDF)

Westermann, G., Sirois, S., Shultz, T.R. & Mareschal, D. (2006). Modeling developmental cognitive neuroscience. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10, 227-232. (PDF)

Kotsoni, E., Csibra, G., Mareschal, D. & Johnson, M.H. (2006). Common-onset visual masking in infancy: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18, 1-8. (PDF)

Bremner, A.J., Bryant, P.E. & Mareschal, D. (2006). Object-centred spatial reference in 4-month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development 29, 1-10. (PDF)

Mareschal, D., Powell, D.A., Westermann, G. & Volein, A. (2005). Evidence of rapid correlation-based perceptual categorisation in 4-month-olds. Infant and Child Development14, 445-457.

Sirois, S. & Mareschal, D. (2004).  An interacting systems model of infant habituation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16, 1352-1362. (PDF)

French, R. M., Mareschal, D., Mermillod, M. & Quinn, P.C. (2004). The role of bottom-up processing in perceptual categorization by 3- to 4-month old infants: Simulations and data. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 133, 382-397. (PDF)

Westermann, G. & Mareschal, D. (2004).  From parts to wholes: Mechanisms of development in infant visual object processing. Infancy 5(2), 131-151.

Kaufman, J., Mareschal, D. & Johnson, M. H. (2003). Graspability and object processing in infants. Infant Behaviour and Development, 26, 516-528. (PDF)

Mareschal, D., Powell, D. & Volein, A. (2003) Basic-level category discrimination by 7- and 9-month-olds in an object examination task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 86, 87-107.

Mareschal, D. & Johnson, M. H. (2003). The "What" and "Where" of infant object representations. Cognition 88, 259-76. (PDF)

Sirois, S. & Mareschal, D. (2002) Models of infant habituation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6, 293-98.

Mareschal, D., Quinn, P. C. & French, R. M. (2002). Asymmetric interference in 3- to 4-month-olds' sequential category learning. Cognitive Science 26, 377-89. (PDF)

Mareschal, D. & Johnson, S. P. (2002) Learning to perceive object unity: A connectionist account. Developmental Science 5, 151-172. (PDF)

Johnson, M. H. & Mareschal, D. (2001) Cognitive and perceptual development during infancy. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 11, 213-218. (PDF)

Schafer, G. & Mareschal, D. (2001). Modeling infant speech sound discrimination using simple associative networks. Infancy 2, 7-28.

Thomas, M. S. C. & Mareschal, D. (2001) Metaphor as categorisation: A connectionist implementation. Metaphor and Symbol 16, 5-27.

Mareschal, D. (2000). Infant object knowledge: Current trends and controversies. Trends in Cognitive Science 4, 408-416.

Mareschal, D., French, R. M., Quinn, P. (2000). A connectionist account of asymmetric category learning in infancy. Developmental Psychology 36, 635-645. (PDF)

Mareschal, D. & French, R. M. (2000). Mechanisms of categorisation in infancy. Infancy 1, 59-76.

Quinn, P. C., Johnson, M. H., Mareschal, D., Rakinson, D. H., & Younger, B.A. (2000). Understanding early categorization: One process or two: A response to Mandler and Smith. Infancy 1, 111-122.

Mareschal, D. & Shultz, T. R. (1999). Children's seriation: a connectionist approach. Connection Science 11, 153-188. (PDF)

Mareschal, D., Plunkett, K. & Harris, P. (1999). A computational and neuropsychological account of object-oriented behaviours in infancy. Developmental Science 2, 306-317.

Mareschal, D. (1998). Cognitive neuroscience and connectionist models of infancy. Early Development and Parenting 7, 147-151.

Mareschal, D., Harris, P. & Plunkett, K. (1997). The effect of linear and angular velocity on 2-, 4-, and 6-month-olds' visual pursuit behaviors. Infant Behavior and Development 20, 435-448.

Shultz, T. R., & Mareschal, D. (1997). Rethinking innateness, learning, and constructivism. Cognitive Development 12, 563-586.

Mareschal, D., Harris, P. & Plunkett, K. (1997) The effect of linear and angular velocity on 2-, 4-, and 6-month-olds’ visual pursuit behaviors. Infant Behavior and Development, 20, 435-448.

Mareschal, D. & Shultz, T. R. (1996) Generative connectionist architectures and constructivist cognitive development. Cognitive Development, 11, 571-605.

Shultz, T. R., Mareschal, D. Schmidt, W. C. (1994) Modeling cognitive development on balance scale phenomena. Machine Learning, 16, 59-88.


Refereed Conference Proceedings:

Blakeman, S. & Mareschal, D. (2022) Explanations from Deep Reinforcement Learning using Episodic Memories. In A Bundy &D Mareschal (eds) Proceedings of the 3rd Human-Like Computing Workshop (pp. 53-58), Windsor, UK. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 3227,

Gauthier A., Porayska-Pomsta K., Mareschal D., & The UnLocke Project Team (2020) Using Eye-Tracking and Click-Stream Data to Design Adaptive Training of Children’s Inhibitory Control in a Maths and Science Game. In: Bittencourt I., Cukurova M., Muldner K., Luckin R., Millán E. (eds) Artificial Intelligence in Education. AIED 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 12164. Springer, Cham.

Addyman, C & Mareschal, D. (2014) GAMIT-Net: Retrospective and prospective interval timing in a single neural network. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Quebec, PQ: Canada.

French, R.M., Addyman, C., Mareschal, D. & Thomas, E. (2014) Unifying prospective and retrospective interval-time estimation: A new fading-Gaussian activation-based model of interval-timing Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 126, 141-150.

Addyman, C., French, R. M., Mareschal, D. & Thomas, E. (2011). Learning to perceive time: A connectionist, memory-decay model of the development of interval timing in infants. Proceedings of the 30th International Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Boston, MA: USA.

Ruh, N., Cooper, R. P., & Mareschal, D. (2008). The hierarchies and systems that underlie routine behaviour: Evidence from an experiment in virtual gardening. In Sloutsky, V., Love, B., & McRae, K. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th International Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 339-344). Washington, DC, USA.

Ruh, N., Cooper, R. & Mareschal, D. (2005). The time course of routine action. In B. Bara (Ed.), Proceedings of the twenty-seventh annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. London: LEA.

Ruh, N., Cooper, R. & Mareschal, D. (2005). Combining familiarity and goal orientedness. In J.J. Bryson, T.J. Prescott & A.K. Seth (Eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Modelling Natural Action Selection. 174-179. Edinburgh, UK: AISB Press.

Ruh, N., Cooper, R. & Mareschal, D. (2005). A reinforcement model of routine sequential action. In T. Honkela, V. Koenoenen, M. Poellae & O. Simula (Eds.), Proceedings of the International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Adaptive Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. 65-70. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology Press.

Mermillod, M., French, R. M.,  Quinn, P.C., & Mareschal, D. (2003).  The importance of long-term memory in infant perceptual categorization. In R. Altman & D. Kirsh (Eds.), Proceedings of the twenty -fifth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 804-809. London: LEA.

Leech, R., Mareschal, D. & Cooper, R. (2003). A connectionist account of analogical development. In R. Altman & D. Kirsch (Eds.), Proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 710-715. London: LEA. (PDF)

French, R. M., Mermillod, M., Chauvin, A., Quinn, P.C., & Mareschal, D. (2002).  The importance of starting blurry: Simulating improved basic-level category learning in infants due to weak visual acuity. In Proceedings of the twenty -fourth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. London: LEA

French, R. M., Mermillod, M., Quinn, P.C., Mareschal, D. (2001). Reversing category exclusivities in infant perceptual categorisation: Simulation and data. In J. D. Moore & K. Stenning (Eds), Proceedings of the twenty-third annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 307-312. London: LEA. (PDF)

Thomas, M. S. C., Mareschal, D., & Hinds, A. C. (2001), A connectionist account of the emergence of the literal-metaphorical-anomalous distinction in young children. In Proceedings of the twenty-third annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 1042-1047. London: LEA. (PDF)

Loose, J. & Mareschal, D. (1999), Inductive Reasoning Revisited: Children's reliance on category labels and appearance. In Hahn & S. C. Stone (Eds.), Proceedings of the twenty-first annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 320-325. London: LEA.

Mareschal, D. & Johnson, S. P (1999). Mechanisms of development in the perception of object unity. In Hahn, M. & Stoness, S.C. (Eds.), Proceedings of the twenty-first annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 343-348. London: LEA.

Mareschal, D. & French, R. M. (1999) A connectionist account of perceptual category-learning in infants. In Hahn, M. & Stoness, S.C. (Eds.), Proceedings of the twenty-first annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 337-342. London: LEA.

Thomas, M. S. C., & Mareschal, D. (1999). Metaphor as categorisation: A connectionist implementation. In Proceedings of the AISB'99 Symposium on Metaphor, Artificial Intelligence, and Cognition. 1-10.

French, R. M. & Mareschal, D. (1998), Could category-specific semantic deficits reflect differences in the distribution of features within a unified semantic memory? In Gernsbacher, M. A. & Derry, S. J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the twentieth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 374-379. London: LEA. (PDF)

Loose, J. & Mareschal, D. (1998). Inductive reasoning tasks revisited: Object labels aren't always the basis of inference within taxonomic domains. In Gernsbacher, M. A. & Derry, S. J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the twentieth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 627-632. London: LEA.

Rudling, P. J. & Mareschal, D. (1998). A connectionist investigation of developmental effects in Stroop interference. In Gernsbacher, M. A. & Derry, S. J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the twentieth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 905-910. London: LEA.

Loose, J. J. & Mareschal, D. (1997).When a word is worth a thousand pictures: A connectionist account of the percept to label shift in children's inductive reasoning. In Proceedings of the nineteenth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 454-459. London: LEA.

Mareschal, D. & French, R.M. (1997). A connectionist account of interference effects in early infant memory and categorization. In Proceedings of the nineteenth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 484-489. London: LEA. (PDF)

Thomas, M. S. C and Mareschal, D. (1997). Connectionism and psychological notions of similarity. In Proceedings of the nineteenth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 757-762. London: LEA. (PDF)

Thomas, M. S. C. & Mareschal, D. (1996) A connectionist model of metaphor by pattern completion. In Cottrell, G.W. (E .), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 696-701. London: LEA.

Mareschal, D., Plunkett, K. & Harris, P. (1995) Developing object permanence: A connectionist model. In J. D. Moore and J. F. Lehn (Eds.) Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 170-175. London: Erlbaum.

Mareschal, D. & Shultz, T. R. (1993) A connectionist model of the development of seriation. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 676-681. London: Erlbaum.


Book Chapters:

Mareschal, D. & Blakeman, S (in press) Fast and slow learning in human-like intelligence. In Muggleton, S. & Chater, N. (Eds) Human-Like Machine Intelligence. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Broadbent, H, & Mareschal, D. (2020) Neuroconstructivism. In S. Hupp & J. D. Jewell (Eds). The Encyclopedia of Child and Adolescent Development. Oxford, UK: John Wiley and Sons.

Mareschal, D. & Brookman-Byrne, A. Educational Neuroscience (2017) In: B. Hopkins, E. Geangu & S. Linkenauger (Eds) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Child Development (2nd Ed) (pp. 582-587). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Mareschal, D. Westermman, & Althaus (2012) In search of the developmental mechanisms of multi-sensory integration. In A. J. Bremner, D. Lewkowicz & C. Spence (eds) Multisensory Development (pp.342-359) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Mareschal D. & Kaufman, J. (2012) Infant cognitive development II--Violation of expectancy: Beyond Baillargeon’s drawbridge study In A Slater & P. C. Quinn (eds) Refreshing Developmental Psychology: Beyond the Classic Studies (pp. 86-100) London, UK: Sage.

Althaus, N. & Mareschal, D. (2011) Early language as multimodal learning. In E. Davelaar (ed) Proceedings of the 12th Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop (pp. 110-123). London, UK: World Scientific.

Mareschal, D. & Westermann, G. (2009) Mixing the Old with the New and the New with the Old: Combining Prior and Current Knowledge in Conceptual Change. In S. P. Johnson (ed.) Neoconstructivism: The new science of cognitive development (pp. 213-232). New York: Oxford University Press.

Mareschal, D. & Althaus, N. (2009): Connectionism. In: Windhorst, U., Binder, M. and Hirokawa, N. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Berlin: Springer.

Mareschal, D., Leech, R., & Cooper, R., P., (2009). Connectionist and dynamic systems models of development : Two sides of the same coin? The Case of analogical completion. In J. Spencer, M. S. C. Thomas, & J L McClelland (Eds.) Dynamical and Connectionist models of Development (pp. 203-217).  UK, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Johnson, M.H., Mareschal, D., & Csibra, G. (2008). The development and integration of the dorsal and ventral visual pathways in object processing.  In C.A. Nelson & M. Luciana (Eds.) The Handbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience (2nd Ed), pp. 467-498. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.

Ruh, N., Cooper, R. P., & Mareschal, D. (2008). A Connectionist Approach to Modelling the Flexible Control of Routine Activities In R. M. French & E. Thomas (Eds.), From Associations to Rules: Connectionist Models of Behavior  and Cognition, pp. 3-15. London: World Scientific.

Westermann, G. & Mareschal, D. (2008). A dual-memory model of categorization in infancy. In French, R.M. and Thomas, E. (eds.), From Associations To Rules: Connectionist Models of Behavior and Cognition, pp 127-138. London: World Scientific.

Mareschal, D. & Bremner, A. J. (2006). When do 4-month-olds remember the “what” and “where” of hidden objects? In Johnson, M. H. & Munakata, Y. (Eds.) Attention & Performance XXI: Processes of Change in Brain and Cognitive Development. 427-447. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Westermann, G. & Mareschal, D. (2005). Connectionist modelling. In Hopkins, B., Barr, R. G., Michel, G. F., & Rochat, P. (Eds.) Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Child Development. 305-308. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Leech, R., Mareschal, D. & Cooper, R. (2004) A temporal attractor framework for the development of analogical completion. In Howe, P. & Labouise, C. (Eds.) Connectionist models of cognition and perception II: Proceedings of the Eighth Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop (NCPW8). 201-210. London, UK: World Scientific.

Westermann, G. &, Mareschal, D. (2004) Modelling asymmetric infant categorization with the representational acuity hypothesis. In Howe, P. & Labouise, C. (Eds.) Connectionist models of cognition and perception II: Proceedings of the Eighth Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop (NCPW8). 95-104. London, UK: World Scientific.

Mareschal. D., Johnson, M.H. & Grayson, A. (2004). Brain and Cognitive Development in Children. In Oates, J.M. & Grayson, A. (Eds), Cognitive and Language Development in Children. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Mareschal, D. (2003). Connectionist models of learning and development in infancy. In Quinlan, P. (Ed.), Connectionist Models of Development. 43-82. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Mareschal, D. (2003). Computational Models of Cognitive Development.  In Nadel, L. (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of Cognitive Science. 533-39.  London, UK: Macmillan.

Mareschal, D. (2003).  The acquisition and use of implicit categories in early development. In Rankinson, D. & Oakes, L. (Eds.), Early Category and Concept Development: Making Sense of the Blooming, Buzzing Confusion. 360-383. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Sirois, S. & Mareschal, D. (2002). Infant habituation: a review of current computational models and a new proposal.  In Bullinaria, J. (Ed. ), Proceedings of the Seventh Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop (NCPW7). 51-63. London, UK: World Scientific Press.

Mareschal, D. (2002).  Connectionist methods in infancy research. In Fagen, J. & Hayne, H. (Eds.), Progress in Infancy Research, Vol. 2. 71-119. Erlbaum. (Formerly Advances in Infancy Research).

Mareschal, D. & Thomas, M. S. C. (2001). Self-organisation in normal and abnormal cognitive development. In Kalverboer, A. F. & Gramsbergen, A. (Eds.), Brain and Behaviour in Human Development: A source book. 743-766. Kluwer Academic Press.

Johnson, M. H., Mareschal, D. & Csibra, G. (2001). The functional development and integration of the dorsal and ventral visual pathways: A neurocomputational approach. In Nelson, C. A. & Luciana, M. (Eds.) The Handbook of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 339-351. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Mareschal, D. (2000). Connectionist modelling and infant development. In Muir, D. and Slater, A.M. (Eds). Essential Readings in Psychology: Infant Development. 55-65. Oxford and Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Shultz, T.R., Schmidt, W.C., Buckingham, D. & Mareschal, D. (1995). Modeling cognitive development with a generative connectionist algorithm. In Simon, T. & Halford, G. (Eds.), Developing Cognitive Competence: New Approaches to Process Modeling. 347-362. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.


Grant funding:

These and other projects are currently funded by: The Royal Society, The British Academy, ESRC (UK), EU Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Framework, The Sackler Institute (USA), ARC (Australia), NSERC (Canada), The Wellcome Trust, The Leverhulme Trust, and the Education Endowment Foundation. Professor Mareschal is the recipient of a Royal Society-Wolfson research merit award.